Categoría: Ancient Peru

Manu National Park

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The National Park of Manu, a World Cultural Heritage Site, is one of the areas with greatest biodiversity on the planet. It is located in the departments of Cusco (Paucartambo province, Kosñipata district) and Madre de Dios (Manu province, Fitzcarrald and Manu districts), including the entire basin of the River Manu. Located in the south of Peru, in the eastern sector of the Andes mountain range and bordering the Amazon basin, it is the only park in Latin America to cover the full range of environments, from low, tropical jungle to cold, high grassland over 4,000 masl.

The National Park of Manu, a World Cultural Heritage Site, is one of the areas with greatest biodiversity on the planet. It is located in the departments of Cusco (Paucartambo province, Kosñipata district) and Madre de Dios (Manu province, Fitzcarrald and Manu districts), including the entire basin of the River Manu. Located in the south of Peru, in the eastern sector of the Andes mountain range and bordering the Amazon basin, it is the only park in Latin America to cover the full range of environments, from low, tropical jungle to cold, high grassland over 4,000 masl.

The park was created on 29 May 1973, covers an area of 1,716,295.22 hectares and is one of the best destinations for nature tourism. The low basin of the River Manu is marked by the exuberance of the Amazon plain. Five zones are recommended for tourism, each with a high diversity of flora and fauna: Salvador, Otorongo, Juárez, Pakitza and Limonal. All offer navigable circuits through the lakes and swamps, where visitors can see seals and black caimans.

One of the main attractions of the park are the clay licks, regularly visited by flocks of macaws as well as other species of fauna, who come here looking for food. The park contains some 221 species of mammal, including the otorongo (jaguar), black panther tapir, collared peccary, deer, capybara, spider monkey, etc. In terms of birds, highlights include the harpy eagle, jabiru, roseate spoonbill, jungle goose and the cock of the rock. Inside the park there is a metal tower 18 meters high and an elevated walkway with a platform that makes it easier to spot birds and to grasp the immensity of the forest from the treetops.

For a spectacular view visitors can climb to the Tres Cruces lookout point and enjoy both the sunset and two contrasting landscapes: the Andes and the rainforest. The best time to go is between May and August when the sky is clear and it is possible to see the sun come up twice during the same dawn, due to a natural phenomenon.

El Manu has one of the most renowned research centers in Amazonia: the biological station of Cocha Cashu. It also has an interpretation center at the guard post of Limonal.

A large part of the park is indigenous territory:
30 peasant communities that live here speak Quechua as their first language and there are various native Amazonian tribes in the region, including the Matsiguenka, Amahuaca, Yine, Amarakaeri, Huashipaire and Nahua people. There are also other indigenous peoples living in voluntary isolation. The cultural wealth of the area is demonstrated by the archaeological sites that have not yet been studied.

Services inside the park: hostels, interpretation center, toilet facilities, park rangers and radio.

Services outside the park: boat/launch hire, police station, medical station.


information: www.peru.travel

Chan Chan Archeological Area

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One of the most significant archeological sites in Peru, Chan Chan is well worth a visit. In the native Mochica language, its name is Jang-Jang, which means: Sun-Sun. It was the capital of the Chimú kingdom, which stretched along the entire north coast between 1100- 145 AD, before being conquered by the Incas.

One of the most significant archeological sites in Peru, Chan Chan is well worth a visit. In the native Mochica language, its name is Jang-Jang, which means: Sun-Sun. It was the capital of the Chimú kingdom, which stretched along the entire north coast between 1100- 145 AD, before being conquered by the Incas.

The centre of the city is a series of 10 walled citadels. One of the outstanding details of the citadels are its decorative walls in high relief with motifs including geometrical patterns, fish and birds, among others.

The archaeological complex also includes neighborhoods, walls, pavements, channels and cemeteries among others. Chan Chan’s complexity clearly shows that the culture reached a high degree of economic, social and urban development.

General Information:
Location: Huanchaco, Trujillo.

Climate: warm and sunny all year round

Average temperature: Average temperature in summer 24 °C (75 °F) It can be visited all year.

Season: Year-round.

Access by Land: The site is located 10 minutes away from Trujillo city.


information: www.peru.travel

Chavín Archaeological Complex

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Chavín was one of the most important cultures of the pre-Inca era. Its principal temple, located in the department of Áncash, was one of the main oracles of Peru. It was built in 1400 B.C. but was in decline by the year 500 B.C, during the so-called Formative period. People came to this center to consult the oracle and to make offerings to the gods. The supreme divinity was represented in El Lanzón or Dios Wari, a giant, carved, lance-shaped monolith, almost 4 meters tall, reached by a series of narrow underground passages

Chavín was one of the most important cultures of the pre-Inca era. Its principal temple, located in the department of Áncash, was one of the main oracles of Peru. It was built in 1400 B.C. but was in decline by the year 500 B.C, during the so-called Formative period. People came to this center to consult the oracle and to make offerings to the gods. The supreme divinity was represented in El Lanzón or Dios Wari, a giant, carved, lance-shaped monolith, almost 4 meters tall, reached by a series of narrow underground passages.

A visit to the complex includes a tour through some of its passages and plazas. The exterior walls are decorated with a series of important heads: zoomorphic faces carved in stone that guard the temple. Other highlights of the complex include the Tello Pyramid, the Circular Plaza, the Rectangular Plaza, the North and South North Platforms, the New Temple and the Old Temple.

In the village of Chavín de Huantar, just a few minutes from the complex, the on-site Museum exhibits archaeological artifacts and important information.

The journey to Chavín de Huantar is somewhat cumbersome. The road is in poor condition, but the scenery is breathtaking. It crosses the Cordillera Blanca (White Range) and offers views of snowcapped mountains and lagoons along the way.

General Information
Location: Chavín de Huantar, Áncash. 3,141 masl (10,305 fasl)

Average temperature: 18° C or 64° F (maximum 18° C -64° F-, and minimum of 9° C -48° F-).

Season: ideally between June and August, when the rain is at its mildest.

Access by Land: 110 km (68 miles) south-east of Huaraz, approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes by bus.


information: www.peru.travel

Sacred City of Caral – Supe

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The Sacred City of Caral represents the origin of Andean culture, and it is the most ancient civilization in the Americas, with historical roots reaching back more than 5,000 years. The Caral complex boasts a variety of structures, most notably the six pyramids with their circular plazas. Based on archaeological findings such as tools and artifacts, it has been established that its inhabitants supported themselves by fishing and farming. Among the more important discoveries is the oldest “quipu” (an instrument used to record data) and 32 flautas (flutes) made from condor and pelican bones.

Watch the video and learn more about Caral, the oldest civilization in the Americas.

The Sacred City of Caral represents the origin of Andean culture, and it is the most ancient civilization in the Americas, with historical roots reaching back more than 5,000 years. The Caral complex boasts a variety of structures, most notably the six pyramids with their circular plazas. Based on archaeological findings such as tools and artifacts, it has been established that its inhabitants supported themselves by fishing and farming. Among the more important discoveries is the oldest “quipu” (an instrument used to record data) and 32 flautas (flutes) made from condor and pelican bones.

Watch the video and learn more about Caral, the oldest civilization in the Americas.

General Information:

Location: At km 184 on Panamericana Norte highway, Barranca Province.

Climate: Sunny, semi-dry

Average temperature: with highs of 27 °C (18 °F) and lows of 19 °C (12 °F).

Season: Year-round. Opening hours are 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Monday to Sunday.

Access by Land: 184 km from Lima on the Panamericana Norte highway, take the 23-km (14 miles) detour to Caral

Time: 3 hours, 30 minutes by bus.


information: www.peru.travel

Nazca lines and geoglyphs

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On the vast pampas of Nazca Jumana, mysterious lines and geoglyphs form geometric patterns as well the figures of animals, anthropomorphic beings, and plants, among others. But their outlines can only be recognized clearly from the sky aboard small airplanes. Despite numerous studies, the lines are an enduring 2,000-year-old mystery that neither time, nor the regions powerful winds, nor any other natural adversaries have been able to erase.

On the vast pampas of Nazca Jumana, mysterious lines and geoglyphs form geometric patterns as well the figures of animals, anthropomorphic beings, and plants, among others. But their outlines can only be recognized clearly from the sky aboard small airplanes. Despite numerous studies, the lines are an enduring 2,000-year-old mystery that neither time, nor the regions powerful winds, nor any other natural adversaries have been able to erase.

Since their discovery in 1927, many theories have been advanced. María Reiche, the German scholar who dedicated her life to the investigation and preservation of the lines, put forth the hypothesis of an astronomical calendar whose figures marked different solar periods. She discovered the ancient practice of carving ditches in the hard, dry soil and filling them with stones brought from distant lands. The component of natural gypsum that exists in the region would have helped preserve the figures over thousands of years.

Among the best-known figures are the hummingbird, the condor, and the monkey. There are more than 800 images outlined in the desert.

The best way to view the extensive tracings is by flyover in the light aircraft that take off from the Nazca airport. On the Panamericana Sur there are also viewing sites, but only a few of the figures can be fully seen from there.

Information:
Location: 450 masl (1,476 fasl), Nasca, Ica Province.

Climate: Sunny and dry year-round.

Average temperature: a maximum of 32 °C (90 °F) and a minimum of 10 °C (50 °F). In winter the maximum temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) and lows reach 9 °C (48 °F).

Season: Year-round.


information: www.peru.travel

Kuélap Archaeological Complex

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At the crest of the Amazonian Andes of northern Peru, 3000 masl (9,843 fasl), is the imposing Fortress of Kuélap, built by the Chachapoyas, a pre-Inca culture that developed between 800 and 1470 A.D. By its location and construction, the complex was designed to defend against other peoples; nevertheless the Chachapoyas were conquered by the Incas.

At the crest of the Amazonian Andes of northern Peru, 3000 masl (9,843 fasl), is the imposing Fortress of Kuélap, built by the Chachapoyas, a pre-Inca culture that developed between 800 and 1470 A.D. By its location and construction, the complex was designed to defend against other peoples; nevertheless the Chachapoyas were conquered by the Incas.

Amidst the green mountains, visitors can view the great, 20-meter (66 feet) high stone wall that protects the city and that begrudges only three entrances, in the form of narrow, walled alleys. In the interior of Kuélap, visitors may admire up to 420 circular stone houses with zigzag and rhomboid ornaments.

From above, the green landscape shows how nature protected this site. Reaching the archaeological complex is in itself an adventure that is well worth undertaking.

Information:
Location: 72 km (45 miles) from Chachapoyas, in the Amazon Department, 3,000 masl (9,843 fasl).

Climate: mild

Average temperature: with a maximum temperature of 23 °C (73 °F) and a minimum of 13 °C (55 °F).

Season: From May to September, when the rain subsides.

Access by Air: There are flights from Lima to Chiclayo and Tarapoto.

Access by Land: Chiclayo route: Approximately 9 hours by bus.
Tarapoto route: Approximately 9 hours by bus. There are no regular flights

Time: 3 hours, 30 minutes south-east of the city of Chachapoyas


information: www.peru.travel

Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary

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Machu Picchu is an Incan city surrounded by temples, terraces and water channels, built on a mountaintop. It was built with huge blocks of stone joined to each other without any mortar. Today it has been designated cultural heritage of humanity in recognition of its political, religious and administrative importance during the age of the Incas.

Machu Picchu is an Incan city surrounded by temples, terraces and water channels, built on a mountaintop. It was built with huge blocks of stone joined to each other without any mortar. Today it has been designated cultural heritage of humanity in recognition of its political, religious and administrative importance during the age of the Incas.

General Information:

Machu Picchu means Old Mountain, taking its name from the location of the Incan citadel.

According to historians, the architectural complex was built in the 15th century, approximately, by the Inca Pachacutec.

Its exact location is in the Machu Picchu district, province of Urubamba, 70 miles northeast of the city of Cusco.

Machu Picchu was linked to the entire Inca Empire via the Qhapaq Ñan, the famous roads of the Incas.

Temperature range from a low of 43º F to a high of 70º F.

The citadel is divided into two areas: the agricultural area consisting of the terraces, and the urban section, which served administrative purposes.

The average altitude of the citadel is 8047 feet above sea level.

The mountains of Wayna Picchu and Machu Picchu are perfect for taking panoramic photos of the entire architectural complex.


information: www.peru.travel